+ Department of BOTANY
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General Degree

Level One - Syllabus - BSc. General Degree Program
Semester One
  • BOT1112: Plant Diversity, Unity and Evolution (30 lecture hrs)
    Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary trends of Monera, Protista, Fungi Bryophyta Pteridophyta and Metaphyta, Structural diversity of non-vascular plants and vascular plants, Reproduc-tive patterns of Monera, Protista, Fungi and Metaphyta.
  • BOT1121: Scientific Approach and Biometrics (15 lecture hrs)
    Scientific method, Limitations of science, Pure science vs. applied science, Introduction to biometrics, Termi-nology, Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, Sampling, processing and presenting data, Measures of central tendency, Measures of dispersion, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, The basis of statistical testing, Chi-squared tests, Corre-lation analysis, Regression analysis, Experimental design, Analysis of variance (ANOVA).
  • BOT1131: Plant Anatomy (15 lecture hrs)
    Microscopy, Forms and functions of cells in the plant body, Specialized cells, Glands and Secretory cells, Primary and secondary growth in stems and roots, Anomalous structures, Ecological anatomy.
  • BOT1141: Botany Practicals I (45 hrs)
    Laboratory exercises and fieldwork on BOT1112, BOT1121 and BOT1131.
Semester Two
  • BOT1212: Genetics (30 lecture hrs)
    Introduction, Mendel’s Laws of Genetics, Chro-mosome morphology, Gene linkage, Crossing over and Gene Mapping, Sex determination and sex linkage, Probability in Mendelian inheritance and pedigree analysis, Mutationa (mutagenic agents, chromosome aberration, euploids, aneuploids, autopolyploids and al-lopolyploids), Viral and bacterial genetics, Genetics of fungi, Extra nuclear inheritance, Population Genetics and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium.

  • BOT1221: Plant Systematics (15 lecture hrs)
    Historical background, general defini-tions, descriptions, nomenclature, identification, classification, taxonomic hierarchy, species concept, different classification systems, ICBN and phylocode system, Angiosperm Phy-logeny Group (APG), taxonomic data from deferent sources, importance of plant systemat-ics, Flora in Sri Lanka.

  • BOT1231: Plant Ecology (15 lecture hrs)
    Fundamentals of Ecology, Different Veg-tation types in Sri Lanka
  • BOT1241: Botany Practicals II (45 hrs)
    Laboratory exercises and fieldwork on BOT1212, BOT1221 and BOT1231.
Level Two - Syllabus - BSc. General Degree Program
Semester One
  • BOT2112: Basic Microbiology (30 lecture hrs)
    Structure and reproduction of viruses, Classification of bacteria, Growth, Culture media, Preservation and control of microorgan-isms, Microbiology of soil, water and food, Medical microbiology.

  • BOT2121: Plant Pathology (15 lecture hrs)
    History of plant pathology, Types of pathogens and diseases, Infection and pathogenesis, Disease diagnosis, Koch’s postulates, Plant disease resistance, Effects of diseases on plants, Post harvest diseases, Plant disease epidemiology, Important plant diseases of major crops in Sri Lanka, Plant disease control and management.

  • BOT2131: Molecular Biology (15 lecture hrs)
    History of Molecular biology, chemical basis of hereditary materials, structures and properties of nucleic acids, fine structure of genes, control of gene expression, protein synthesis, replication, isolation of DNA, quality and quantity assessments.

  • BOT2141: Botany Practicals III (45 hrs)
    Laboratory exercises on BOT2112, BOT2121 and BOT2131.
Semester Two
  • BOT2212: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (30 lecture hrs)
    Plant water re-lations; cell water relations, soil water relations, water absorption and transport, stomatal physiology, mineral nutrition, phloem translocation. Energy relations in cells and plants; respiration, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, fatty acid metabolism. Plant growth and development; plant growth and growth measurements, plant growth hormones and their applications, photoperiodism and vernalization, plant movements, physiology of flowering, seed and bud dormancy.

  • BOT2221: Environmental Science (15 lecture hrs)
    Fundamentals of environmen-tal science, Environmental pollution and contamination, Major forms of pollution sources, Impacts and control, Eutrophication, Special environmental problems in Sri Lanka, Global environmental issues with special reference to Sri Lanka, Introduction to waste water treat-ment methods giving special reference to biological methods.

  • BOT2231: Soil- Plant Relationships (15 lecture hrs)
    Physical and chemical charac-teristics of soil, , Macro- and micro- nutrients in soil, Toxic elements in soil, Factors affecting availability and uptake of nutrients, Soil organic matter and its dynamics, Interaction be-tween plant roots and microorganisms, Soil and plant nutrient analysis, Major soil types of Sri Lanka, Soil Conservation and sustainable management of soil.

  • BOT2241: Botany Practicals IV (45 hrs)
    Laboratory exercises and field visits on BOT2212, BOT2221 and BOT2231.
Level Three - Syllabus - BSc. General Degree Program
Semester One
  • BOT3112: Advanced Plant Ecology (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs) Op.Prerequisite: Botany core courses
    Historical aspects of plant ecology, Ecological processes in plant communities, Predation and mutualism, Competition, Major Biomes, Community concept, Community classification and Ordination, Community dynamics (succession and climax), Fire ecology, Plant adaptations in different ecosystems.

  • BOT3122: Horticulture, Floriculture and Landscaping (20 lecture hrs+21 prac-tical hrs) Op. for Biology students
    Divisions of horticulture, Advantageous and limitations of horticulture, Classification of horticultural plants, Plant propagation methods, Cultivation of horticultural plants plant , Nurseries, Application of hydroponics in horticulture, Floriculture, Landscaping: Designing, Installing and maintenance, Post-planting immediate care, Pruning and training of plants.

  • BOT3132: Advanced Microbiology (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op. Pre-requisite: Botany core courses
    Plant-microbe interactions (rhizosphere, phyllosphere, role in disease resistance), Ecology of microorganisms (interactions with environment, role in biogeochemical cycles).

  • BOT3142: Advanced Plant Pathology (15 lecture hrs + 30 practical hrs) Op. for Biology students
    Molecular plant pathology - Genetics of host-pathogen interactions (gene for gene interac-tion, recognition and triggering resistance), Hypersensitive Reaction (HR), Induced resis-tance in plants (local and systemic), Putative signal transduction pathways towards sys-temic resistance, Biotechnology in plant protection (Diagnosis, detection, transgenics etc.) Ecological plant pathology Epidemiology, Disease forecasting, Plant disease management (chemical, cultural, biological control, etc. and integrated approaches).

  • BOT3162: Forestry (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op. for Biology students
    Forest classification and biomass, Forest mensuration, The use of Remote sensing and GIS in forestry, Silviculture and different silviculture systems, Forest resource management, Eco-nomic uses and ecological services of forests, Forest policy in Sri Lanka, Forest protection, Forest fires, diseases and pests.

  • BOT3172: Food Technology (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs) Op. Prerequisite: Botany core courses
    Hitory of food science & technology, Food spoilage, Food poisoning preservation methods of food, post harvest technology, Food packaging and labelling, genet-ically modified/engineered food.

  • BOT3182: Advanced Molecular Biology (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs) Op.Prerequisites: BOT2131
    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization, chromosome structure and function of genes in organelles, isolation of nucleic acids and protein, tools and techniques used in molecular biology (enzymes and vectors, introduction to gene cloning, DNA sequencing, PCR techniques, electrophoresis techniques), transposons and their practical applications.

  • BOT3191: Weed Biology (12 lecture hrs + 06 practical hrs) Op. for Biology students
    Characteristics of weeds, Classification of weeds, Weed spread and evolution, Impact of weeds, Weed control, Herbicides (application, mechanisms of action, transformations in plants, persistence and behaviour in soil), Invasive species, Allelopathic effect of weed, Paddy field and aquatic weeds.

Semester Two
  • BOT3212: Wood Science (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op. for Biology stu-dents
    Terminology, Structure of wood, Physical properties of wood, Mechanical properties of wood, Grading of woods/timber, Common and specific uses of woods, Wood seasoning, Wood preservation.
  • BOT3222: Plant Tissue Culture (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op. Prerequi-site: BOT2131
    Cell theory /totipotency, history of plant tissue culture, in vitro methods in plant tissue culture (sterile technique, media components), steps involved in micro-propagation, initi-ation and maintenance of callus, suspension culture and in-vitro production of secondary metabolites, different types of culture techniques, somaclonal variation, applications of tis-sue culture in Sri Lanka, conservation, cryopreservation, structure of a plant tissue culture laboratory.
  • BOT3232: Advanced Plant Physiology (25 lecture hrs+15 practical hrs) Op.Prerequisite: Botany core courses
    Crop establishment and seedling growth, Crop photosynthesis and yield, Metabolic and structural factors influencing photosynthetic rate, Light distribution and canopy structure Limitations of crop yield by weather and climate, Partitioning and remobilization of photo-synthetic assimilates, Translocation and source sink relationship, Biochemical adaptations of plants to the environment, Biochemistry of C3 C4 intermediate species.
  • BOT3242: Advanced Environmental Science (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op. Prerequisite: Botany core courses
    Population growth, Decline of vital life support ecosystem, Global atmospheric changes, Loss of biodiversity, Sustainability, Biodiversity assessment methods, values, threats and conservation.Biogeochemical cycles, Waste management, Agriculture related environmental problems, Bio-indicators and bio-monitoring,Bioremediation, Environmental impact assess-ment (EIA).
  • BOT3251: Plant Virology (15 lecture hrs) Op. for Biology students
    History of plant virus, Properties of virus, Chemical nature, Structure of viruses, Virus genome, Infection process, Plant virus diseases and symptoms, Virus identification and diagnosis, Spread of virus in nature, Plant virus disease control.
  • BOT3261: Economic Botany 23(15 lecture hrs) Op. for Biology students
    Concepts of economics, Agro-forestry, Mangroves, Medicinal plants, Plantation crops in Sri Lanka, Fruits and vegetables, Fibre and Timber, Spices, oils, gums etc., Algae, Microorgan-isms.
  • BOT3271: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (15 lecture hrs) Prerequisites:BOT2131, BOT3181
    Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (15 lecture hrs) *Introduction to genetic engineering and rDNA technology, gene libraries, gene therapy and its applications, concept of reverse genetics, chromosome walking, transgenic plants and animals (agricultural biotechnology, biotechnology in medicine) other commercial opportunities, uses in research, production of useful protiens, diagnosis of hereditary diseases, etc.
  • BOT3282: Plant breeding (25 lecture hrs+ 15 practical hrs) Op. for Biology students
    History of plant breeding, Conventional breeding methods (mass selection, pure line selec-tion, hybridization, single seed descent, backcross breeding, Recurrent selection methods, synthetic varieties), Modern plant breeding methods, Protoplast culture and anther culture techniques.
  • BOT3292: Plant Ecophysiology (25 lecture hrs+ 15 practical hrs) Op. for Biol-ogy students
    Plant cell and its environment, Plant growth and plant growth analysis, Interactions between plant life and environmental parameters, Light environment of plants and measurements, Water status and water stress, Methods of assessing water status and water stress, Dendro-climatology, Stable carbon isotope in plant ecophysiology studies.